Wednesday, October 28, 2009

Draf rang undang-undang hidu gam ke Peguam Negara

Draf rang undang-undang hidu gam ke Peguam Negara
28/10/2009 3:00pm


KUALA LUMPUR 28 Okt — Draf rang undang-undang mengenai kesalahan menghidu gam telah dihantar ke Jabatan Peguam Negara untuk diteliti, Dewan Rakyat diberitahu hari ini.

Timbalan Menteri Dalam Negeri Datuk Wira Abu Seman Yusof berkata pada masa sekarang, tidak ada satu undang-undang pun yang digubal untuk meletakkan aktiviti penagihan gam sebagai satu kesalahan di sisi undang-undang.

"Tetapi dari segi penguatkuasaan kita perhebatkan kempen di kalangan masyarakat terutama di kalangan pelajar sekolah supaya mereka tahu bahawa kegiatan menghidu gam itu boleh membahayakan kesihatan dan melibatkan kematian jika berlarutan,” katanya menjawab soalan tambahan Dr Lo”Lo” Mohamad Ghazali (PAS-Titiwangsa) yang membangkitkan perkara itu.

Terdahulu menjawab soalan asal Dr Lo”Lo, Abu Seman memberitahu terdapat 25 kes rampasan secara besar-besaran dibuat oleh Polis Diraja Malaysia (PDRM) pada 2008 manakala 30 kejayaan lagi dicatatkan sehingga September tahun ini.

Antara operasi yang membawa kejayaan besar pada 2008 termasuk kes rampasan dadah bernilai RM44 juta apabila PDRM membongkar sebuah makmal haram yang digunakan untuk memproses dadah di Senai, Johor.

Pada tahun ini pula, antara kes yang menarik juga melibatkan penjualan pil erimin 5 dengan nilai rampasan dianggarkan RM20 juta. Dalam kes rampasan di Sg Nibong, Pulau Pinang itu seramai 11 lelaki dan dua wanita ditangkap, katanya. - Bernama

sumber: http://www.utusan.com.my/utusan/info.asp?y=2009&dt=1028&pub=Utusan_Malaysia&sec=Terkini&pg=bt_25.htm

Tuesday, October 27, 2009

Pusat teknologi penyelesaian kewangan Islam global

Perbankan dan kewangan Islam berkembang dengan begitu pesat di rantau ini dan juga di negara-negara Barat lain seperti Amerika Syarikat dan Eropah dengan kewujudan institusi sokongan. Perkembangan drastik ini membuktikan sistem perbankan serta kewangan Islam semakin diterima ramai dan menjadi pengimbang serta alternatif terbaik kepada sistem konvensional sedia ada yang secara asasnya melarang amalan riba, pengambilan risiko dan aktiviti spekulasi secara berlebihan.

Perkembangan ini penting sebagai asas pembentukan model ekonomi baru dan pembuka tirai kepada RMK-10 ke arah usaha reformasi dan transformasi ekonomi negara. Pencapaian ini secara dasarnya telah dibuktikan memandangkan Malaysia mampu menerbitkan jumlah sukuk terbesar di dunia yang melibatkan sejumlah AS$94.7 bilion iaitu 62 peratus keseluruhan sukuk dunia pada 2008.

Sistem perbankan Islam domestik termasuk pelaburan luar asing juga terus menunjukkan peningkatan dalam bahagian pasaran bagi aset, deposit dan pembiayaan yang semakin akomodatif. Bahkan industri takaful yang menjadi tulang belakang sistem ini turut mengalami pertumbuhan purata tahunan yang pantas dengan jumlah aset insurans yang terus meningkat di pasaran.

Dalam konteks ini, Malaysia dengan pengalaman, kepakaran dan kemudahan kewangan yang ada juga dilihat sangat berpotensi untuk dipasarkan sebagai pusat teknologi penyelesaian kewangan Islam global biarpun ketika ini menyaksikan lebih banyak syarikat teknologi Eropah dan India menjual penyelesaian perbankan Islam dan takaful kepada bank dan syarikat insurans tempatan.

Oleh itu, inisiatif Bank Negara Malaysia (BNM) yang sedang membangunkan parameter Syariah untuk menggalakkan penggunaan kontrak kewangan Islam secara konsisten sangat wajar di mana enam kontrak yang telah dikenal pasti ialah Murabahah, Ijarah, Mudharabah, Mushrakah, Istina' dan Wadiah. Penerbitan parameter Syariah ini akan menambahkan kejelasan serta keselarasan tafsiran dan pemahaman terhadap produk dan perkhidmatan.

Ini akan memudahkan penerimaan yang lebih luas terhadap kewangan Islam dan meningkatkan urus niaga rentas sempadan dalam usaha mewujudkan gerbang bagi pelaburan dan pangkalan bagi aktiviti kewangan. Ini termasuk aktiviti promosi, penjenamaan, terbitan sukuk, inovasi produk, penyeragaman dokumentasi dan usaha penyelarasan ke arah pemahaman dan pentafsiran produk serta perkhidmatan kewangan Islam.

Sehubungan itu, negara perlu memiliki lebih banyak syarikat teknologi tempatan yang mampu menawarkan teknologi penyelesaian yang inovatif serta komprehensif di dalam kewangan Islam melibatkan prasarana pasaran modal Islam, takaful, pengurusan sukuk, instrumen pembiayaan Syariah lain dan sebagainya di samping sebagai penyedia sistem kewangan Islam holistik terunggul di peringkat global dalam mengintegrasikan negara Islam di dalam komuniti kewangan Islam.

Tambahan pula, dilaporkan sekurang-kurangnya tiga bank Islam Malaysia bakal memasuki pasaran perbankan di Bosnia- Herzegovina menjelang akhir tahun ini. Ini adalah peluang terbaik kepada amalan perbankan Islam berkembang di rantau berkenaan pula memandangkan sektor perbankan di Bosnia mempunyai potensi yang baik untuk dibangunkan berdasarkan keadaan ekonominya yang kukuh berbanding negara-negara Eropah lain.

Bosnia juga dalam masa yang sama boleh dijadikan pintu masuk dan hab perbankan Islam terutama bagi kawasan Eropah Tenggara. Rekod Malaysia yang sememangnya sejak awal tahun 80-an lagi sebagai pelopor penting dalam pembangunan sistem kewangan Islam global mampu berperanan sebagai hub utama penyedia teknologi penyelesaian kewangan Islam di sana pada masa hadapan di samping menyediakan kawal atur dan pemantauan yang kukuh, bagi memastikan tadbir urus korporat dan amalan terbaik kewangan Islam yang lebih meluas.

Rujukan:

Tiga bank Islam Malaysia ke Bosnia, Utusan Malaysia, 10 Oktober 2009
Promosi aktiviti kewangan Islam, Utusan Malaysia, 17 Oktober 2009
Malaysia punyai potensi, Utusan Malaysia, 22 Oktober 2009
Perbankan Islam tunjukkan peningkatan, Utusan Malaysia, 25 Oktober 2009
Lagi parameter Syariah galakkan kontrak kewangan Islam, Utusan Malaysia, 25 Oktober 2009

Tuesday, October 13, 2009

Bai Bithaman Ajil beban peminjam

BNM perlu cari alternatif elak pengguna rugi

GEORGETOWN: Bank Negara Malaysia (BNM) perlu mencari alternatif terbaik bagi melindungi pelanggan pembiayaan rumah Bai Bithaman Ajil (BBA) yang gagal membayar pinjaman.

Dekan Institut Perbankan dan Kewangan Islam, Universiti Islam Antarabangsa Malaysia (UIAM), Prof Dr Ahmed Kameel Mydin Meera, berkata BNM perlu bertindak supaya orang ramai yang meletakkan kepercayaan kepada sistem itu tidak mengalami kerugian.

Ketika ini, peminjam yang gagal membayar balik pinjaman melalui pembiayaan BBA akan berakhir dengan beban yang lebih teruk berbanding pinjaman perumahan konvensional.

Beliau memberi contoh kes seorang peminjam yang membeli sebuah kondominium yang sedang dalam pembinaan berharga RM249,000 tetapi melalui perjanjian BBA bank berkenaan menjual kepadanya dengan harga RM744,766.

Malangnya, projek itu terbengkalai tetapi bank sudah membayar RM9,543 kepada pemaju. Bebanan itu kini terletak di bahu peminjam yang perlu membayar balik RM505,368.

"Peminjam itu menawarkan untuk membayar balik kepada bank sebanyak RM10,000 tetapi bank menuntut sebanyak RM505,368," katanya pada sidang media di pejabat Persatuan Pengguna Pulau Pinang (CAP) di sini, semalam.

Hadir sama, Presiden CAP, SM Mohamed Idris.

BBA adalah pembiayaan yang mana pengguna menjual harta yang ingin dibeli kepada bank sebelum bank menjual semula kepadanya dengan harga yang lebih tinggi.

Kebanyakan bank yang menyedari masalah itu, menukar semula pembiayaan itu kepada konsep Musharakah Mutanaqisah yang memberi kelebihan kepada peminjam yang gagal supaya tidak berakhir dengan jumlah hutang yang tinggi.

Ahmed Kameel berkata, jumlah pembayaran semula sangat tinggi dan ia boleh memberi kesan ketika kegawatan ekonomi.

Sehubungan itu, katanya BNM perlu memastikan rebat yang diberikan adalah besar kepada peminjam yang gagal membayar supaya pengurangan pinjaman dapat diberikan secara adil tanpa campur tangan bank yang berat sebelah.

sumber: http://www.bharian.com.my/Current_News/BH/Wednesday/Nasional/20091013235303/Article/index_html


Bank Negara must help defaulters of Islamic banking: CAP

By TUNKU SHAHARIAH

GEORGE TOWN: Bank Negara Malaysia should help defaulters of the popular ‘Bai Bithaman Ajil’ (BBA) home financing so that consumers who have put their faith in Islamic financing are not short changed.

Consumer’s Association of Penang (CAP) president S. M. Mohamed Idris said presently the defaulters ended up worst than defaulters of other conventional housing loans as BBA was an Islamic home financing where interest was not allowed to be charged.

International Islamic University Malaysia’s Dean of the Institute of Islamic Banking and Finance Prof Ahmed Kameel Mydin Meera said under the BBA, the borrower was initially deemed to have sold the property to the bank under the loan agreement.

“This poses potential problems when the property is still under construction. The consumer then ‘buys the property back from the bank at a very much higher price as it includes the profit element for the bank (known as the Bay al-Inah concept).

“The consumer then makes monthly payments based on the price sold to him by the bank,” he told a press conference at CAP office here Tuesday.

Prof Ahmed said as the BBA was a sales contract that included profit, the borrower could in the event of a default, owe more than the original financing amount taken.

“A few of the customers who were unhappy with the astronomical sums they were asked to pay have taken their banks to court,” he added.

He added, in 2008 High Court judge Datuk Abdul Wahab Patail had argued that the BBA sale was not a genuine sale as the profit charged by the banks was nothing more than the interest payment in a conventional loan.

“Since the profit element of the BBA was a sham, the contract had gone against Shariah principles.

“However in April 2009, the Court of Appeal ruled that the BAA contract is shariah compliant and therefore binding. It also stated that the BBA is a sales transaction and should not be compared to a loan transaction,” he added.

Mohd Idris urged Bank Negara to protect Islamic banking by regulating the rebates the banks could give to BBA defaulters so that their outstanding balance could be significantly reduced given the current global financial meltdown where more people were expected to default on loans in the coming months.

source: http://thestar.com.my/news/story.asp?file=/2009/10/13/nation/20091013112436&sec=nation

Wednesday, October 07, 2009

AS kenakan peraturan ketat pada blogger

SAN FRANCISCO 6 Okt. - Suruhanjaya Perdagangan Persekutuan (FTC) Amerika Syarikat semalam, menetapkan supaya maklumat produk dan ulasan dalam talian dikemukakan lebih tepat untuk pengguna, dengan buat julung kalinya mengawal aktiviti blogging dan mewajibkan pengiklan memaparkan testimoni pengguna yang benar tanpa sebarang penipuan.

FTC juga mengkehendaki penulis di laman web dengan jelas menyatakan sebarang bentuk hadiah atau bayaran yang diperoleh mereka daripada syarikat kerana membuat ulasan tentang produk.

Suruhanjaya itu juga berkata, pengiklan yang memaparkan testimoni yang didakwa mendatangkan keputusan dramatik juga tidak boleh menyembunyikan penafian bahawa keputusan produk adalah berbeza mengikut individu.

FTC memaklumkan, pihaknya memenangi undian 4-0 bagi meluluskan garis panduan akhir itu, yang telah dijangka. Garis panduan tersebut tidak terikat dengan undang-undang, namun ia mentafsirkan peraturan yang diharap dapat membantu pengiklan supaya mematuhinya. Mencabul peraturan tersebut yang berkuat kuasa 1 Disember ini, boleh mendatangkan pelbagai sekatan termasuk tuntutan undang-undang.

Testimoni perlu menjelaskan apa yang dijangka dialami pelanggan setelah menggunakan produk mereka. Sebelum ini, syarikat-syarikat hanya menyatakan penafian apabila keputusan produk di luar kebiasaan - seperti kehilangan berat badan yang banyak - dengan memberitahu pengalaman tersebut bukanlah sama untuk semua pelanggan.

Iklan testimoni berkesan kepada pengguna kerana ia memaparkan kisah seseorang individu yang menceritakan pengalaman mereka, memberi harapan kepada pelanggan lain bahawa mereka juga mungkin mengalami keadaan yang sama.

Namun FTC berkata, ia boleh memperdaya pengguna jika pengiklan tidak menyatakan apa yang perlu pengguna jangkakan.

Bagi penggiat blog, FTC mewajibkan mereka memperincikan konflik kepentingan dengan jelas.

Rich Cleland, pembantu pengarah bahagian latihan pengiklanan FTC berkata, pendedahan tersebut mestilah jelas dan mudah dilihat, walau dalam apa juga bentuk.

Penggiat blog sering memuji atau mengkritik produk serta perkhidmatan dalam talian. Namun apa yang pelanggan tidak tahu adalah, banyak syarikat mengupah seseorang untuk memberikan ulasan atau memberikan mereka hadiah percuma seperti permainan, komputer atau pakej pelancongan ke Disneyland.

Sebagai perbandingan, pihak-pihak media akan diberi pinjam produk syarikat, namun perlu memulangkannya selepas ulasan dibuat.

Sebelum FTC mengeluarkan notis akhir November lalu yang ia bakal menyelaraskan beberapa persetujuan, blog berbeza-beza dalam pendedahan mereka tentang konflik kepentingan.

Cadangan FTC membuatkan ramai penggiat blog bimbang. Mereka berkata, penelitian rapi itu akan membuatkan mereka bimbang tentang pemaparan ulasan biarpun yang tidak bermaksud apa-apa.

Bagi meredakan kebimbangan itu, Cleland memberitahu, penguatkuasaan FTC itu akan lebih tertumpu kepada pengiklan yang melakukan pencabulan pendedahan atau testimoni, berbanding penggiat blog. Bagaimanapun, beliau berkata, ia tidak melibatkan penggiat blog yang mengendalikan operasi 'penting', yang telah mencabul peraturan FTC dan telah diberi amaran. - AP

sumber: http://www.utusan.com.my/utusan/info.asp?y=2009&dt=1007&pub=Utusan_Malaysia&sec=Luar_Negara&pg=lu_09.htm#

Kukuhkan kewangan Islam, mantapkan kewangan global - Zeti

ISTANBUL, Turki 6 Okt. - Usaha dan komitmen berterusan dalam mengukuhkan ketahanan industri kewangan Islam akan meningkatkan potensi pertumbuhan serta kestabilan industri kewangan global.

Gabenor BNM, Tan Sri Dr. Zeti Akhtar Aziz berkata, dalam bergerak ke hadapan, asas kekukuhan kewangan Islam sebagai perantara akan terus dimantapkan ekoran pelbagai usaha telah dilakukan termasuk pembangunan infrastruktur serta pelaburan dalam pembangunan dan penyelidikan.

Beliau berkata, industri kewangan Islam telah mampu mengharungi gelombang pertama krisis ekonomi dengan mempamerkan kekukuhan sebagai perantara kewangan.

''Keutuhan institusi kewangan Islam semasa krisis adalah disokong oleh Prinsip Syariah iaitu dua elemen penting seperti setiap transaksi perlu disokong oleh aktiviti ekonomi untuk menjana pendapatan serta perkongsian keuntungan yang berlandaskan perkongsian risiko.

''Oleh itu, institusi kewangan Islam perlu mengikut elemen tersebut bagi setiap cadangan perniagaan bagi memastikan ketelusan. Manakala peranan badan syariah adalah bagi memastikan setiap aspek perniagaan mengikut prinsip syariah,'' katanya.

Beliau berkata demikian ketika menyampaikan ucaptama pada Seminar Kewangan Islam: Semasa dan Selepas Krisis Kewangan Global yang berlangsung di Istanbul, Turki di sini hari ini.

Tambah Zeti, prinsip syariah dapat memastikan dimensi tadbir urus dan pengurusan risiko menyumbang kepada perlindungan kewangan Islam daripada potensi risiko tekanan akibat aktiviti spekulasi.

''Walaupun berhadapan dengan ketidaktentuan dan suasana mencabar ekoran krisis semasa, perkembangan dan pembangunan industri perkhidmatan kewangan Islam di peringkat global masih belum berkurang.

''Keadaan kewangan Islam yang dinamik digambarkan melalui pertumbuhan kukuh, peningkatan produk kewangan dan perkhidmatan serta penubuhan penyedia perkhidmatan kewangan Islam baru dari pelbagai negara di dunia termasuk dunia bukan Islam,'' jelasnya.

Zeti berkata, perkara itu dapat dilihat melalui terbitan sukuk yang mula mendapat perhatian daripada pelabur berpengkalan di Asia, Eropah dan Timur Tengah.

''Pembangunan positif itu telah dilihat walaupun berhadapan dengan keadaan ekonomi mencabar,'' katanya.

sumber: http://www.utusan.com.my/utusan/info.asp?y=2009&dt=1007&pub=Utusan_Malaysia&sec=Ekonomi&pg=ek_01.htm#

Sunday, October 04, 2009

TIDAK DIWAKILI PEGUAM LANGGAR HAK ASASI SEJAGAT



Laporan yang menyatakan bahawa Majlis Peguam menganggarkan sebanyak 200,000 kes yang dibicarakan di mahkamah seluruh negara tidak diwakili peguam setiap tahun sangat mengejutkan dan perlu diberi perhatian serius oleh semua pihak kerana keadilan dalam apa jua keadaan mesti dipertahankan kerana melibatkan maruah dan martabat manusia itu sendiri. Kes-kes yang tidak diwakili peguam ini meliputi kes jenayah sehinggalah kepada kes sivil sama ada di mahkamah rendah atau mahkamah tinggi.

Ini tidak sepatutnya berlaku kerana dalam sebuah masyarakat yang sedang membangun dan mempunyai sistem perundangan antara yang terbaik dunia, maka prinsip keadilan kepada semua adalah sangat mustahak dan menjadi cadang utama kepada kemajuan sesebuah negara bangsa. Kegagalan menyediakan peguam kepada mereka yang memerlukan adalah jelas melanggar prinsip asas hak asasi manusia dan keadilan sejagat, malahan dalam Islam sendiri pesalah atau suspek hendaklah diberi ruang membela diri atau dibicarakan di mahkamah sewajarnya.

Ini adalah kerana keadilan tidak boleh diperjudikan semata-mata kerana seseorang itu tidak mampu membayar khidmat peguam untuk mengendalikan kes, lebih-lebih lagi kepada golongan yang tidak berkemampuan memandangkan kosnya agak tinggi. Keadaan ini menyebabkan dalam kebanyakan kes orang kena tuduh (OKT) sama ada mengaku bersalah tanpa dibicarakan, ditahan reman di penjara dan mewakili diri sendiri, kalah dalam kes yang dibicarakan di mahkamah hanya kerana mereka tidak mampu mengambil peguam untuk kes mereka.

Walaupun, Majlis Peguam mempunyai Jawatankuasa Bantuan Guamannya yang tersendiri, namun mereka hanya dapat mengendalikan 26,000 kes setahun kerana tidak mempunyai dana dan peruntukan yang mencukupi bagi menampung kos pengurusan kes yang semakin meningkat dan bayaran peguam memandangkan wujudnya pertambahan jumlah kes setiap tahun, jangka masa penyelesaian yang panjang bagi sesuatu kes dan mengikut tahap kompleksiti sesuatu kes yang dibicarakan di mahkamah.

Tambahan pula, ketika ini Majlis Peguam hanya mampu menyediakan peruntukan sebanyak RM1.3 juta setahun sahaja bagi membantu OKT yang tidak diwakili di mahkamah di mana dana berkenaan adalah dari sumbangan wajib daripada 14,000 orang peguam di seluruh negara yang menyumbang RM100 seorang setahun ke arah merealisasi dan menjayakan amalan bantuan guaman badan tersebut. Jumlah ini sudah tentu tidak mencukupi melihat kepada jumlah kes sedia ada yang masih dibicarakan dan juga bertambahan kes-kes baru setiap tahun.

Sehubungan itu, dalam usaha kerajaan menerapkan semangat 1Malaysia di mana menekankan kepada konsep ‘Rakyat Didahulukan Pencapaian Diutamakan’ tanpa mengira bangsa dan agama, maka diharapkan kerajaan Persekutuan dan Negeri dapat menyediakan geran tahunan kepada Majlis Peguam dan Jawatankuasa Peguam Negeri bagi mengendalikan kes-kes tertangguh berkenaan dan dalam masa yang sama memastikan keadilan dilaksanakan sepenuhnya tanpa sebarang ganguan, jurang kemiskinan dan birokrasi.

Di samping itu, dicadangkan juga agar setiap peguam dan firma guaman di seluruh negara digalakkan mengambil kes-kes di mahkamah yang tidak diwakili peguam secara percuma dan sukarela sekurang-kurangnya satu kes sahaja setahun di samping meningkatkan lagi jumlah sumbangan dana tahunan serta menyediakan kepakaran perundangan sedia ada bagi memastikan tidak ada lagi kes yang tidak diwakili oleh mana-mana pihak.

Malahan sumbangan daripada pihak luar seperti agensi kerajaan, syarikat GLC, golongan jutawan dan hartawan yang prihatin, NGO hak asasi kemanusiaan dan sebagainya sangatlah diharapkan bagi mengurangkan lagi bebanan golongan yang tidak berkemampuan dalam mendapat keadilan di mahkamah. Impian ini jika berlaku maka sudah tentu kita dapat mengurangkan pertambahan kes dan jumlah banduan di penjara pada masa hadapan memandangkan dalam keadaan tertentu terdapat OKT yang terus mengaku bersalah kerana tidak mampu menyediakan peguam baik bagi kesnya.

Walaupun kerajaan ada menyediakan kemudahan Biro Bantuan Guaman (BBG) di mana cawangannya terdapat hampir di seluruh negeri, namun badan tersebut masih dikongkong kerana tidak boleh mengendalikan kebanyakan kes-kes yang difailkan di mahkamah kerana kadang-kadang berlaku konflik kepentingan dalam sesuatu kes memandangkan biro itu ditubuhkan oleh kerajaan. Masalah ini timbul apabila dalam kebanyakan kes orang awam yang membabitkan saman dan tuntutan terhadap kerajaan dan oleh yang demikian, sebuah badan bebas seperti Majlis Peguam perlu mengambil alih tugas tersebut bagi memastikan keadilan ditegakkan di Mahkamah.

Rujukan

200,000 kes tidak diwakili peguam, Utusan Malaysia, 3 Oktober 2009
Laman web Majlis Peguam: http://www.malaysianbar.org.my/

Friday, October 02, 2009

HAMKA MODEL ULAMA VERSATIL



Hamka atau nama sebenar beliau Haji Abdul Malik Amrullah yang dilahirkan pada 17 Februari 1908 adalah seorang ulama dan pemikir serba boleh dan sangat luar biasa ketokohan serta kebolehannya. Kehebatan beliau yang menguasai pelbagai disiplin ilmu termasuklah falsafah, sastera, sejarah, sosiologi dan politik ke arah mengangkat martabat serta tamadun umat Islam. Sepanjang hayat beliau telah melahirkan sejumlah karya ilmiah Islam dan karya kreatif seperti novel dan cerpen yang begitu berpengaruh kepada masyarakat Islam di Nusantara sehingga ke hari ini.

Sumbangan pemikirannya telah memberi rangsangan terhadap kebangkitan dan kemajuan weltanschauung Islam pada zaman moden di Alam Melayu terutamanya Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunai dan Singapura. Karya-karya intelek beliau menjadi penjana minda, pembina gagasan dan penyuluh kepada keimanan serta keilmuan umat Islam. Sepanjang hayatnya beliau telah menulis sebanyak 118 buah buku di samping tulisan-tulisannya yang disiarkan di media cetak lain yang menjadikan beliau seorang pemikir Islam yang prolifik.

Karya intelektual terbesar beliau ialah Tafsir al-Azhar (5 jilid) yang merupakan antara tafsir kontemporari dan popular serta beberapa novelnya yang berjaya menarik perhatian umum dan menjadi buku teks sastera di Malaysia dan Singapura termasuklah Tenggelamnya Kapal Van Der Wijck, Di Bawah Lindungan Kaabah, Merantau ke Deli dan banyak lagi. Beliau dianggap sebagai tokoh istemewa multi dimensi yang layak ditabalkan sebagai negarawan, sasterawan, sejarawan, ilmuwan, budayawan, pemikir dan ulama unggul Nusantara yang berjuang melalui kuasa pena sejati sehingga akhir hayat beliau.

Dalam buku Pemikiran Hamka (2008) menyatakan selain aktif dan amat dikenali dalam bidang keagamaan, Hamka juga merupakan seorang wartawan, penulis, editor dan penerbit di mana sejak tahun 1920-an, Hamka menjadi wartawan beberapa buah akhbar seperti Pelita Andalas, Seruan Islam, Bintang Islam dan Seruan Muhammadiyah. Pada tahun 1928, beliau menjadi editor majalah Kemajuan Masyarakat, majalah al-Mahdi, Pedoman Masyarakat, Panji Masyarakat dan Gema Islam. Beliau turut meneliti dan memahami karya sarjana Perancis, Inggeris dan Jerman seperti Albert Camus, William James, Sigmund Freud, Arnold Toynbee, Jean Paul Sartre, Karl Marx, Pierre Loti dan banyak lagi dalam usaha mendepani serangan pemikiran Barat dan orientalis terhadap Islam.

Bagi menghargai sumbangan dan kesarjanaan beliau pernah menerima beberapa anugerah pada peringkat nasional dan antarabangsa seperti anugerah ijazah doktor kehormat Doctor Honoris Causa dari Universiti al-Azhar, Mesir pada tahun 1958 dan dari Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) pada tahun 1974 oleh Kerajaan Malaysia. Dalam usaha memastikan kesinambungan legasi intelektual beliau telah menubuhkan Universiti Muhammadiyah Prof. Dr. Hamka (UHAMKA). Jadi beliau layak diangkat sebagai mujaddid dan musleh di Alam Melayu kerana Hamka dalam konteks dunia Melayu telah melakukan proses transformasi sosial melalui pemikiran agama dan sasteranya sebagai asas tajdid dan islah.

Biarpun Hamka telah pulang ke rahmatullah pada 24 Julai 1981, namun ketokohan, pemikiran, sumbangan, perjuangan dan pengaruhnya masih terasa sehingga kini dalam memartabatkan agama Islam pada tahap tertinggi serta merealisasikan proses reformasi dan revolusi minda umat Melayu. Kepada generasi baru Islam, susuk tubuh manusia hebat bernama Hamka ni perlu dijadikan ikon dan idola mereka dalam usaha mencipta kejayaan lebih besar serta mengikuti jejak langkah kecemerlangan tokoh luar biasa ini. Kita perlu melahirkan lebih ramai modal insan seperti Hamka di Alam Melayu ini agar suatu hari nanti Nusantara mampu muncul sebagai pusat kecemerlangan Islam di rantau ini.

Rujukan:

Sidek Baba, ed, 2008. Pemikiran Hamka. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka

200,000 kes tidak diwakili peguam

KUALA LUMPUR 2 Okt. – Majlis Peguam menganggarkan sebanyak 200,000 kes yang dibicarakan di mahkamah seluruh negara tidak diwakili peguam setiap tahun.

Pengerusi Jawatankuasa Bantuan Guaman Majlis Peguam, Cecil Rajendra memberitahu, keadaan itu menyebabkan dalam kebanyakan kes orang kena tuduh sama ada mengaku bersalah, ditahan reman di penjara dan mewakili diri sendiri, kalah dalam kes yang dibicarakan di mahkamah.

‘‘Keadaan ini wujud kerana Jawatankuasa Bantuan Guaman Majlis Peguam hanya dapat mengendalikan 26,000 kes setahun kerana tidak ada peruntukan cukup bagi menampung kos pengurusan kes dan bayaran peguam.

‘‘Jawatankuasa hanya mempunyai peruntukan RM1.3 juta setahun iaitu sumbangan daripada 14,000 orang peguam di seluruh negara yang menyumbang RM100 seorang setahun kepada tabung itu,’’ katanya di sini hari ini.

Beliau berkata demikian dalam sidang akhbar bagi mengumumkan pelancaran Minggu Kesedaran Undang-Undang Kebangsaan yang akan dilakukan oleh Menteri Besar Kedah, Datuk Seri Azizan Abdul Razak di Kedah pada 24 Oktober depan.

Cecil berharap kerajaan dapat menyediakan geran tahunan kepada jawatankuasa itu bagi mengendalikan kes-kes berkenaan.

Kata beliau, kes yang tidak diwakili peguam dari kes jenayah hinggalah kes sivil.

‘‘Biro Bantuan Guaman (BBG) tidak boleh mengendalikan kebanyakan kes tersebut kerana berlaku konflik kepentingan memandangkan biro itu ditubuhkan oleh kerajaan.

‘‘Banyak kes-kes yang membabitkan saman terhadap kerajaan tidak boleh dikendalikan oleh BBG oleh itu jawatankuasa ini terpaksa mengendalikannya bagi memastikan keadilan di tegakkan,’’ katanya.

sumber: http://www.utusan.com.my/utusan/info.asp?y=2009&dt=1003&pub=Utusan_Malaysia&sec=Mahkamah&pg=ma_04.htm

Thursday, October 01, 2009

Ph.D Palsu Satu Jenayah Intelektual!


Memiliki ijazah Ph.D atau ijazah doktor falsafah adalah impian hampir semua orang tidak kiralah sama ada berada di lapangan pendidikan, politik, korporat dan sebagainya. Ini adalah kerana selain gelaran atau pangkat Dr. di pangkal nama, Ph.D juga melambangkan prestij dan klimaks tahap pendidikan tertinggi seseorang. Semua sedia maklum bahawa untuk menggenggam segulung ijazah tertinggi itu bukan mudah, amat rumit dan memerlukan pengorbanan dan komitmen yang sangat tinggi sama ada berbentuk material, fizikal dan persediaan minda yang cukup kental.

Bagi membolehkan seseorang dianugerahkan ijazah ulung itu, mestilah melalui proses pengajian yang lama, tahap kajian dan penyelidikan tinggi dan sangat bermutu diperlukan di samping terdedah dengan kaedah penulisan dan pembentangan serta mempunyai kemahiran komunikasi baik. Di samping itu, dapat memahami, menilai dan membuat hipotasis sesuatu kajian serta mengumpul fakta, analisis, tafsiran, teori, data, ujian dan hujah sangat penting bagi mempertahankan hasil kajian dan penyelidikan mengikut metodologi yang bersesuaian dengan bidang yang diambil.

Kejayaan mereka yang berjaya mengenggam ijazah tertinggi ini secara positifnya mampu membakar semangat rakyat Malaysia yang dahaga ilmu pengetahuan dan tekad berusaha mengamalkan tradisi menuntut ilmu seumur hidup. Golongan yang cintakan ilmu ini wajar diangkat sebagai ikon dan sumber inspirasi kepada orang ramai dalam usaha mewujudkan masyarakat berilmu mengetahuan atau k-masyarakat, lebih-lebih lagi ianya sangat bertepatan dan mampu merealisasikan konsep intelektual Satu Malaysia yang kini giat diterapkan di dalam masyarakat kita.

Keadaan ini sudah tentu memberi cabaran dan motivasi kepada orang ramai untuk memiliki ijazah Ph.D dan menjadi aspirasi kepada graduan universiti terutamanya untuk terus menyambung pelajaran mereka sehingga ke peringkat ijazah tertinggi. Bagi mereka yang cemerlang dan telah tamat pengajian tetapi masih belum menerima sebarang tawaran pekerjaan, maka ini adalah masa dan peluang terbaik untuk menyambung pelajaran di dalam dan luar negara sebagai bekalan ketika memohon pekerjaan kelak dan nilai tambah kepada potensi diri seseorang.

Tambahan pula dengan dana dan peluang yang ada, kerajaan melalui Kementerian Pengajian Tinggi (KPT) melancarkan program MyBrain15 yang bermatlamat melahirkan 60,000 pemegang Ph.D menjelang tahun 2023 sebagai satu usaha menambah bilangan pemegang ijazah Ph.D yang secukupnya dalam sumber tenaga kerja mahir dan bermaklumat negara. Program yang julung-julung kali ini dianjurkan kerajaan adalah sebagai persediaan kepada negara menjana dan memiliki modal insan yang berkualiti, kompeten, kompetitif dan mempunyai daya saing yang tinggi serta berfikiran glokal di samping berminda kelas pertama.

Sehingga kini setakat statistik tahun 2008, jumlah pemegang ijazah doktor falsafah di Malaysia hanya sekitar 8,000 orang sahaja dan jumlah itu masih belum mencukupi di samping menghalang negara untuk mewujudkan lebih banyak ciptaan atau inovasi yang mampu menjana pembangunan negara. Untuk itu, kerajaan mahu melakukan perubahan pada senario itu dan pemegang Ph.D tempatan perlu menjadi tonggak dalam memandu inovasi negara dan tonggak kepada kejayaan program MyBrain15 adalah di tangan institusi pengajian tinggi awam (IPTA) kerana merekalah kilang melahirkan tenaga pakar tersebut pada masa hadapan.

Namun dalam keghairahan mengejar gelaran Ph.D, terdapat di kalangan mereka yang diragui status Ph.D dan universiti yang menganugerahinya. Perkara seperti ini tidak sepatutnya berlaku memandangkan masyarakat hari ini semakin matang dan mempunyai tahap inkuiri yang tinggi. Jika perkara ini diketahui kelak, sudah tentu ianya sangat memalukan dan orang ramai akan hilang keyakinan kepada mereka. Gelaran Ph.D yang diragui atau bogus juga turut melarat kepada beberapa tokoh ternama politik, pendidikan, korporat, pakar motivasi, pengamal perubatan alternatif dan ramai lagi seperti yang acapkali didedahkan oleh media arus perdana.

Sehubungan itu, tindakan undang-undang adalah saluran terbaik bagi menangani masalah serius ini yang boleh dikategorikan sebagai jenayah intelektual terancang di mana Jabatan Peguam Negara misalnya diminta memutuskan sama ada pembelian atau pemerolehan ijazah Ph.D secara ekspres dan tidak sah di laman internet atau dari mana-mana universiti maya yang tidak diiktiraf merupakan perbuatan jenayah atau sebaliknya. Kegiatan membeli anugerah akademik palsu tersebut semakin serius dan jika tidak ditangani, akan melahirkan satu generasi ilmuwan palsu atau intelek plastik. Ini sangat bahaya dan merupakan barah kepada korpus pendidikan serta dunia intelektual di negara kita walaupun dilaporkan setakat ini tiada IPTA atau IPTS tempatan yang terlibat dalam skandal intelektual ini memandang negara mempunyai mekanisme mengesan dan membanterasnya.

Untuk itu, semua pihak, agensi kerajaan dan kementerian yang berkenaan juga perlu menilai dan merumuskan kaedah terbaik untuk menghalang perbuatan membeli dan penganugerahan gelaran akademik tertinggi yang semakin menjadi-jadi dewasa ini di segelintir masyarakat di negara kita dan fenomena ini sangat tidak beretika. Pihak-pihak yang menggunakan gelaran palsu berkenaan juga harus disiasat dengan segera kerana mereka boleh ditafsir melakukan satu bentuk penipuan kepada masyarakat dan negara dengan hasrat atau tujuan tertentu. Budaya intelektual songsang ini sudah berada di tahap yang agak keterlaluan dan jika dibiarkan boleh mengelirukan masyarakat dan menjejas imej institusi pendidikan tinggi di negara kita.

RUJUKAN

Wan Mohd. Mihidin Wan Kadir. Calon Ph.D perlu kuasai BI professional, Utusan Malaysia, 18 Ogos 2008
MyBrain15 tingkat jumlah pemegang Ph.D dilancar, Utusan Malaysia, 26 September 2008
Gelaran Datuk ekspres, Utusan Malaysia, 23 September 2009
Tiada IPT keluarkan PhD ekspres, palsu, Berita Harian, 27 September 2009
PhD ekspress salah dari segi etika: Ungku Aziz, Berita Harian, 29 September 2009

SAH! KONTRAK BAI BITHAMAN AJIL MEMANG SAH

DALAM MAHKAMAH RAYUAN MALAYSIA
(BIDANG KUASA RAYUAN)
RAYUAN SIVIL NO. W-02-957-2008

ANTARA

BANK ISLAM MALAYSIA BERHAD
(NO. SYARIKAT: 98127-X) … PERAYU

DAN
1. GHAZALI BIN SHAMSUDDIN
2. MOKHTAR BIN SHAMSUDIN
3. KAMARUDIN BIN SAMSUDIN … RESPONDENRESPONDEN


Coram: Raus Sharif, J.C.A.
Abdull Hamid Embong, J.C.A.
Ahmad Maarop, J.C.A.

JUDGMENT OF THE COURT

1. On 18 July 2008, the Kuala Lumpur High Court delivered a
common judgment for 12 cases concerning Islamic financing
which sent shock waves to the Islamic banking industry. The
learned Judge declared that the Bai Bithaman Ajil (“BBA”)
contract, a financial instrument in Islamic financing, which had
been in existence and practised in this country for the past 25
years was contrary to the Religion of Islam.

2. The plaintiff in the respective 12 cases was Bank Islam
Malaysia Berhad (“BIMB”). BIMB is an Islamic bank licensed
under the Islamic Banking Act 1983 and thus authorised to
carry on Islamic banking business. The defendants were
BIMB’s customers.

3. What had happened was this. Prior to the delivering of the
common judgment, the learned Judge had instructed counsel
appearing in the 12 cases which were pending before him, to
file their respective written submissions.

4. The written submissions were duly filed but counsel were not
called upon to appear before the learned Judge to make oral
submissions or provide clarification of their written submissions.
From the written submissions the common judgment for the 12
cases was delivered by the learned Judge.

5. In the common judgment, the learned Judge did not deal with
the particular facts of the individual cases. What he had done
was to discuss and make decisions regarding, in the learned
judge’s own words ‘the basic principles concerning Islamic
financing’. At the end of it, he concluded that the BBA contracts
were contrary to basic principles of Islam.

6. In his ruling, the learned Judge had grouped the BBA contracts
into two categories: those where there was a novation
agreement and those where there was none. In those where
there was a novation agreement he further subdivided it with
two sub-categories: those where the financing had expired and
those where it is still ongoing. For those where the financing
period had expired, the claim by BIMB was allowed in full. For
those where the financing period is still ongoing and had not
expired, he ruled that the amount claim was excessive and
unfair. He applied the ‘equitable’ interpretation of the sale price
as he had interpreted in his earlier judgment in the case of
Affin Bank Bhd. v Zulkifli Abdullah [2006] 1 CLJ 438.

7. What had happened in Affin Bank Bhd. v Zulkifli Abdullah
(Supra) was this. Zulkifli Abdullah obtained a secured housing
loan of RM394,172.06 from the Affin Bank Bhd under the BBA
in 1997. Zulkifli Abdullah defaulted the loan in 2002 after
paying RM33,454.19 to the bank. Affin Bank Bhd then claimed
from Zulkifli Abdullah the full sale price of RM958,909.21,
inclusive of the plaintiff’s profit margin for the full term of the
loan. Affin Bank Bhd also applied for an order for sale of the
changed property. Zulkifli however challenged the amount
claimed. The learned Judge held:

(1) If the customer is required to pay the profit for
the full tenure, he is entitled to have the
benefit of the full tenure. It follows that it
would be inconsistent with his right to the full
tenure if he could be denied the tenure and
yet be required to pay the bank’s profit margin
for the full tenure. To allow the bank to also
be able to earn for the unexpired tenure of the
facility, means the bank is able to earn a profit
twice upon the same sum at the same time.

(2) The profit margin that continued to be charged
on the unexpired part of the tenure cannot be
actual profit. It was clearly unearned profit. It
contradicted the principle of Al-Bai Bithaman
Ajil as to the profit margin that the provider
was entitled to. Obviously, if the profit had not
been earned it was not profit, and should not
be claimed under the Al-Bai Bithaman Ajil
facility.

(3) The profit margin could be calculated and
derived with certainty. Even if the tenure was
shortened, the profit margin could be
recalculated with equal certainty. The total
due on the date of the judgment was
RM616,080.99 and after crediting the
defendant with all the payments he has made
of RM33,454.19, the balance due on the date
of judgment was RM582,626.80.

(4) Once it was established that there had been a
default, then unless there was cause to the
contrary, the order for sale must be given
since a charge is an ad rem right to dispose of
the security to recover a secured debt.

8. The learned Judge then proceeded to determine the actual
amount due to the plaintiff in the following manner:

“Balance Due 29 December 2005
According to the calculation placed before the court
for the bank, the bank profit at the agreed profit rate
of 9% per annum on RM394,172.06 is RM35,475.49
per annum or RM35,475.49/12 = RM2,956.29 per
month or on a 360 day 20 year basis as agreed,
RM98.54 per day. Between 1 November 1999 to
the date of judgment on 29 December 2005 is a
period of 74 months less 2 days. The profit, by
simple arithmetic since the payments meantime is
not very significant, for 74 months less 2 days is
RM218,767.49. As agreed the bank is also entitled
to penalty of RM3,141.44 as on today. Added to the
bank purchase price of RM349,172.06 the total due
on the date of judgment is RM616,080.99. After
crediting the defendant with all the payments he had
made RM33,454.19, the balance due on the date of
judgment is RM582,626.80. The bank is also
entitled to profit per day here after full payment at
RM2,956/30 = RM98.54.”

9. It can be seen from the case cited above that an Islamic bank
could only recover the balance of the principal of the facility
plus profit on the balance principal calculated at a daily rate
until payment.

10. The learned Judge further ruled that for those contracts, where
there was no novation agreement, the agreement was in fact a
loan agreement. And, since interest is prohibited in Islam,
BIMB could only recover the principal sum advanced pursuant
to section 66 of the Contract Act 1950.

11.Issues and Findings

12. After hearing the parties, we unanimously allowed the BIMB’s
respective appeals. We now give our reasons.

13. The 9 appeals involved BBA contracts. Thus, in order to
understand the decision and reasoning of the learned Judge, it
is necessary to set out briefly the nature and essential features
of a BBA contract.

14. A BBA contract is a financial instrument in Islamic banking. It is
the most common form of transaction being used in Islamic
banking in this country. Basically, a BBA contract is a deferred
payment sale contract. It is used to finance bank’s customers
to purchase and own properties or assets. It involves two
distinct contracts, one a Property Purchase Agreement and
also a Property Sale Agreement.

15. In a typical BBA contract, the customer will first sell the property
or asset to the bank under the Property Purchase Agreement.
The bank’s purchase price would be the amount required by the
customer. That sum is called the facility amount or the
financing amount. It is also described as the bank’s purchase
price.

16. The sale is a cash sale. The bank has to pay the purchase
price to the customer immediately upon the completion of the
documentation process. But in most cases, where a customer
had entered into a Sale and Purchase Agreement with a
developer to purchase a house, and therefore needs financing,
the bank and the customer would mutually agree that the bank
shall release the amount (the bank’s purchase price) to the
developer in stages against progress payment certificates.

17. With that purchase, the property belongs to the bank. But, the
customer is to buy it back from the bank and he will only be
able to pay the price over a period of years. The bank will sell
but the sale price will not be the same amount as the bank’s
purchase price. The sale price will include the bank’s profit on
the sale, which will later be calculated and added to the
purchase price. The total amount is now the sale price. In
effect, the bank will sell the very same property it has
purchased from the customer to him at a selling price under the
Property Sale Agreement. The customer then will pay the
bank’s selling price over a period of years by monthly
installments. At that point the customer becomes the owner of
the property again.

18. To illustrate the BBA contract, we will refer to the facts in Civil
Appeal No. W-02-918-2008. In that case the customer applied
to BIMB for a financing facility to purchase a property known as
Unit B10-3 Jenis Excelsa, Taman Universiti Indah, Fasa 111C
(“the Property”). BIMB purchased the property from the
customer pursuant to a Property Purchase Agreement dated 16
October 1996 for a purchase price of RM145,800.00. On the
same date BIMB sold the property to the customer pursuant to
a Property Sale Agreement for a sale price of RM450,954.00.
Again on the same date, the customer executed a deed of
assignment in favour of the BIMB to secure the payment of the
sale price. The sale price was to be paid by the customer by
360 monthly instalments of RM1,252.65 per month. The
customer had paid the sum of RM105,556.13 before he
defaulted in the payment of the sale price. The balance sale
price due was the sum of RM370,425.05. That was the sum
claimed by BIMB from the customer.

19. The above illustration clearly demonstrates that in a BBA
contract the sales took place immediately both pursuant to the
Property Purchase Agreement and the Property Sale
Agreement, so that when the Property Sale Agreement was
entered into, the customer becomes the owner of the property
immediately. What was deferred was the payment of the
BIMB’s selling price by the customer to the BIMB.

20. The above illustration also demonstrates that in BBA contract,
the Property Purchase Agreement and the Property Sale
Agreement completed the BBA transaction. But, invariably the
bank will require security from the customer for the payment of
the bank’s selling price. If a separate title to the property has
been issued, the customer will create a charge in favour of the
bank. If a separate title has not been issued, the customer will
execute a deed of assignment by way of security. However, it
should be noted that the charge or assignment is not part of the
BBA transaction. It is a security arrangement. Even without
the charge or assignment the BBA contract will be completed.

21. The learned Judge in his common judgment questioned the
validity and enforceability of the BBA contracts on two main
grounds. First, he found the BBA contract was ‘far more
onerous than the conventional loan with riba’ which is
prohibited and unequivocally condemned in Islam. Second, he
found that the BBA contract practised in this country is not
acceptable by all the 4 Mazhabs in Islam. He ruled that BBA
contract is only acceptable to one Mazhab, and this is not
sufficient to say that it is approved by the Religion of Islam
which is a requirement under section 2 of the Islamic Banking
Act 1983.

BBA contract ‘far more onerous than the conventional loan
with riba’


22. The learned Judge in advancing his view that the BBA contract
is ‘far more onerous than the conventional loan with riba’, used
the facts in Bank Islam Malaysia Berhad v Adnan bin Omar
[1994] 3 CLJ 735 (Adnan bin Omar), as the starting point. In
that case, the bank was also BIMB, had granted the customer a
facility amounted to RM583,000.00. It involved three
simultaneous transactions, namely:-

(i) On 2 March 1984, the customer sold to BIMB a price of
land for RM265,000.00 which sum was duly paid to him;
(ii) On the same date, BIMB resold the same piece of land to
the customer for RM583,000.00 which amount was to be
paid by the customer in 180 monthly installments;
(iii) Also on the same date, the said land was charged to
BIMB by the customer as security for the debt of
RM583,000.00.

23. Using the facts in Adnan bin Omar, the learned Judge
concluded by stating that the customer ‘who had sought and
obtained an Islamic financing facility of RM265,000.00 ended
up, when he defaulted not long after, with liability of
RM583,000.00. This, according to the learned Judge had
resulted in the customer being liable to an amount far higher
than he would have been liable to in a conventional loan with
interest. He then pointed out that if a conventional loan must
be avoided because of the prohibition of “riba” or interest,
surely the alternative must result in a consequence that is less
burdensome than a default in the conventional loan with
prohibited interest. He continued in the following words:
“But it is equally evident in this case that the result
of what is presented as the application of the Quran
principle is that the defendant became liable, upon
default at any time, to an amount that is 2.2 times
the facility he obtained. It could hardly have been
intended by these words in the Surah Al-Baqarah
that an Islamic financing facility should result in
consequences for more onerous than the
conventional loan with “riba” that is prohibited and
unequivocally condemned. One might pause and
observe that the harshness of usury is hardest upon
those who default, and much less so, if at all, upon
those fortunate enough to be able to service the
loan successfully. The Qur’an could hardly have
intended that its followers, faithfully and trustingly
seeking an Islamic compliant facility, should be
delivered to those who offer what appear to be
perfectly Islamic compliant facilities, but upon a
default, had an interpretation applied that imposes a
far more onerous liability than the conventional loan
with interest. It is difficult to conceive that the
Religion of Islam intended to discourage its
followers from the conventional loan with interest,
condemn lenders for such loans, and deliver its
followers into the bands of banks and financiers
who under sale agreements with deferred
payments, exact upon default, payments far
exceeding the liability upon default of a conventional
loan with interest. One cannot say that the Religion
of Islam is so much more concerned with form than
substance as would sustain the bank’s
interpretation of “selling price”.”

24. We have no hesitation in accepting that riba’ or interest is
prohibited in Islam. But the issue at hand is whether such
comparison between a BBA contract and conventional loan
agreement was appropriate. With respect, we do not think so.
This is because the two instruments of financing are not alike
and have different characteristics. BBA contract is a sale
agreement whereas a conventional loan agreement is a money
lending transaction. The profit in BBA contract is different from
interest arising in a conventional loan transaction. The two
transactions are diversely different and indeed diametrically
opposed.

25. Thus, the learned Judge was plainly wrong when he equated
the profit earned by BIMB as being similar to riba’ or interest.
The two cannot be similar as BBA contract is in fact a trade
transaction. It is a transaction between the customer and the
bank. In such transaction, there is a purchase agreement and
a separate sale agreement between the customer and the
bank.

26. Further, the comparison between BBA contract and
conventional loan agreement is of no relevance. It serves no
purpose as the law applicable in BBA contract is no different
from the law that is applicable in a conventional loan
agreement. Abdul Hamid JCA (as he then was) in the case of
Bank Kerjasama Rakyat Malaysia v Emcee Corporation
Sdn Bhd [2003] 1 CLJ 625
, dealing with Islamic banking
facility said:

“As was mentioned at the beginning of this
judgment the facility is an Islamic banking facility.
But that does not mean that the law applicable in
this application is different from the law that is
applicable if the facility were given under the
conventional banking.

The charge is a charge under the National Land
Code. The remedy available and sought is a
remedy under the National Land Code. The
procedure is provided by the Code and Rules of the
High Court 1980. The court adjudicating it is the
High Court. So, it is the same law that is applicable,
the same order that would be, if made, and the
same principles that should be applied in deciding
the application.”


27. Similarly, the law applicable to BBA contracts is no different
from the law applicable to loan given under the conventional
banking. The law is the law of contract and the same principle
should be applied in deciding these cases. Thus, if the contract
is not vitiated by any vitiating factor recognised in law such as
fraud, coercion, undue influence, etc. the court has a duty to
defend, protect and uphold the sanctity of the contract entered
into between the parties.

28. Thus, the learned Judge in coming to the conclusion that BBA
contract is in fact a loan agreement and consequently by:
(a) replacing the sale price under the Property Purchase
Agreement with an “equitable interpretation” of the same;
and
(b) substituting the obligation of customer to pay the sale
price with a “loan amount” and “profit” computed on a
daily basis, as he expounded in Affin Bank Bhd. v Zulkifli Abdullah
(Supra), was in fact rewriting the contract for the parties. It is
trite law that the Court should not rewrite the terms of the
contract between the parties that it deems to be fair or
equitable. This principles has been clearly expressed in
numerous cases. (See Shell Malaysia Trading Sdn. Bhd. v
Lim Yee Teck & Ors [1982] 2 MLJ 181; Wong Pa Hock v
American International Assurance [2002] 2 CLJ 267; M.
Paikan v Y.P Devathanjam [1952] MLJ 58; and Charter
Reinsurance Co. Ltd. v Fagai [1996] 3 All ER 46.
BBA contract not acceptable by all the 4 Mazhabs and thus
not acceptable in the Religion of Islam

29. The learned Judge acknowledged the fact that cases involving
Islamic financing in this country remain within the Federal
Legislative jurisdiction, and such cases are brought in the Civil
Courts and not the Syariah Courts. He also acknowledged that
no legislation in the form of Islamic laws has been legislated for
trade and financing based upon Islamic principles. But the
learned Judge took issue on the definition of ‘Islamic banking
business’ in section 2 of the Islamic Banking Act 1983 which
reads:

“’Islamic banking business’ means banking
business whose aims and operations do not involve
any element which is not approved by the Religion
of Islam.”


30. The learned Judge in interpreting the above definition stated as
follows:

“If a facility is to be offered as Islamic to Muslims
generally, regardless of their mazhab, then the test
to be applied by a civil court must logically be that
there is no element not approved by the Religion of
Islam under the interpretation of any of the
recognised mazhabs. That it is acceptable to one
mazhab is not sufficient to say it is acceptable in the
Religion of Islam when it is not accepted by the
other mazhabs.”

31. With utmost respect, the learned Judge had misinterpreted the
meaning of “do not involve any element which is not approved
by the Religion of Islam”. First, under section 2 of the Islamic
Banking Act 1983, “Islamic banking business” does not mean
banking business whose aims and operations are approved by
all the four mazhabs. Secondly, we do not think the Religion of
Islam is confined to the four mazhabs alone as the sources of
Islamic law are not limited to the opinions of the four imams and
the schools of jurisprudence named after them. As we all
know, Islamic law is derived from the primary sources i.e. the
Holy Quran and the Hadith and secondary sources. There are
other secondary sources of Islamic law in addition to the
jurisprudence of the four mazhabs.

32. In this respect, it is our view that judges in civil court should not
take upon themselves to declare whether a matter is in
accordance to the Religion of Islam or otherwise. As rightly
pointed out by Suriyadi J (as he then was) in Arab-Malaysian
Merchant Bank Bhd [2005] 5 MLJ 210
that in the civil court
‘not every presiding judge is a Muslim, and even if so, may not
be sufficiently equipped to deal with matters, which ulamak take
years to comprehend’
. Thus, whether the bank business is in
accordance with the Religion of Islam, it needs consideration by
eminent jurists who are properly qualified in the field of Islamic
jurisprudence.

33. This issue is in fact addressed in the Islamic Banking Act 1983.
To ensure that the operation of the banking business of an
Islamic bank is in accordance to the Religion of Islam, Section
3(5) provides that the Central Bank i.e. the Bank Negara
Malaysia shall not to recommend the grant of an Islamic
banking licence, and the Minister shall not to grant a licence,
unless he is satisfied:

“(b) that there is, in the articles of association of
the bank concerned, provision for the establishment
of a Syariah advisory body to advise the bank on
the operations of its banking business in order to
ensure that they do not involve any element which
is not approved by the Religion of Islam.”

34. Thus, it is a requirement for any Islamic bank to establish a
Syariah advisory body to advise the bank and to ensure the
operations of its banking business do not involve any element
which is not approved by the Religion of Islam. In fact, in 2003,
a single Syariah Advisory Council was established through an
amendment of the Central Banking of Malaysia Act 1958.
Section 16B of the Central Bank of Malaysia Act 1958
established the central Syariah Advisory Council under the
aegis of Bank Negara Malaysia. With the amendment, the
single Syariah Advisory Council became “the authority for the
ascertainment of Islamic law for the purpose of Islamic banking
business, takaful business, Islamic financing business, Islamic
development financial business or any other business which is
based on Syariah principles”. Section 16B(2) of the Act
provides for the membership of the Syariah Advisory Council.
With the establishment of the single Syariah Advisory Council,
the Islamic Banking Act 1983, had been amended accordingly.
It provides as follows:

“Advice of Syariah Advisory Council
13A. (1) An Islamic bank may seek the advice of
the Syariah Advisory Council on Syariah matters
relating to its banking business and the Islamic bank
shall comply with the advice of the Syariah Advisory
Council.

(2) In this section, “Syariah Advisory Council”
means the Syariah Advisory Council established
under sub-section 16B(1) of the Central Bank of
Malaysia Act 1958.”

35. Thus, we already have the legal infrastructure to ensure that
the Islamic banking undertaken by the banks in this country
does not involve any element which is not approved by the
Religion of Islam. The court, will have to assume that the
Syariah advisory body of the individual bank and now the
Syariah Advisory Council under the aegis of Bank Negara
Malaysia, would have discharged their statutory duty to ensure
that the operation of the Islamic banks are within the ambit of
the Religion of Islam. This is more so, when the customers in
these appeals have not made any allegations that the Syariah
advisory body of BIMB or the Syariah Advisory Council
established by the Bank Negara had failed to exercise their
statutory duties. Thus, the learned Judge, with respect, should
not have taken upon himself to rule that the BBA contracts were
contrary to the Religion of Islam without having any regard to
the resolutions of the Syariah Advisory Council of the Central
Bank Malaysia and the Syariah Advisory body of BIMB on the
validity of BBA contracts.

36. In any event, the questions raised by the learned Judge on the
validity and enforceability of the BBA contracts, is not novel. It
had been raised in previous cases and had been ruled upon. In
Adnan bin Omar b Bank Islam Malaysia Berhad(unreported), the Supreme Court upheld the validity and enforceability of the BBA contract. In that case, the Supreme
Court accepted as correct and affirmed the judgment of Ranita
Hussein JC. Subsequently, the validity and the enforceability of
BBA contracts was again decided by this court in Datuk Hj. Nik
Mahmud Nik Daud v Bank Islam Malaysia Berhad [1998] 3
CLJ 605
, and Bank Kerjasama Rakyat Malaysia Berhad v
Emcee Corporation Sdn Bhd (Supra).

37. In Dato’ Hj. Nik Mahmud Nik Daud, the customer argued that
the Property Purchase Agreement and the Property Sale
Agreement and the land charges based on them were null and
void. Both the High Court and the Court of Appeal disagreed
with the contention and granted the order of sale for the full
outstanding balance of the bank’s selling price. In Emcee
Corporation Sdn. Bhd., the validity and enforceability of the
BBA contract was again challenged. The High Court at
Seremban refused to grant the order for sale on the
construction of a term in the agreement. On appeal, the Court
of Appeal reversed the judgment of the High Court and granted
the order. An application for leave to appeal to the Federal
Court by the customer was refused by the Federal Court.

38. From the above cases, it is clear that the validity and
enforceability of the BBA contract had been ruled upon by the
superior courts. It is trite law that based on the doctrine of stare
decisis, a decision of a superior court is binding on all courts
below it. The importance of this principle must not be taken
lightly. In this regard, we can do no better than be guided by
the wise words of Steve Shim CJ (Sabah & Sarawak) in Tan
Heng Chew v Tan Kim Hor [2006] 2 MLJ 293:-

"It is axiomatic to state that the doctrine of stare
decisis has become the cornerstone of the common
law system practised in this country. It is
fundamental to its existence and to the rule of law.
It has attained to status of immutability”.

His Lordship further stated that:-

“Judicial hierarchy must be observed in the interest
of finality and certainty in the law and for orderly
development of legal rules as well as for the courts
and lawyers to regulate their affairs. Failure to
observe judicial precedents would create chaos and
misapprehensions in the judicial system”.

39. In light of the above the learned Judge ought to have held
himself bound by those decisions. He cannot simply ignore or
disregard the decisions of the Supreme Court or the Court of
Appeal. To do so, as pointed by Steve Shim CJ (Sabah &
Sarawak) would create chaos and misapprehensions in the
judicial system.

40. In conclusion, it is our view that the High Court judgment was
manifestly wrong and must be set-aside. Accordingly, we
allowed the 9 appeals with costs here and the court below. The
orders of the learned Judge are therefore set-aside. We
ordered the respective cases to be sent back to the High Court
to be heard on its merit. We also order that the deposits of
these appeals are to be refunded to BIMB.

Dated this 26th day of August 2009.

Raus Sharif
Judge
Court of Appeal Malaysia

Counsel for the appellant: En. Mohamed Ismail Shariff
En. Oommen Koshy
En. Mohd Arief Emran